Classical Conditioning is a learning process where a conditional stimulus (CS) is paired with an unconditioned stimulus (US) until the animal performs an unconditioned response (UR) to the conditional stimulus.
The learning property was famously discovered by Ivan Pavlov in his studies conducted with dogs.
Classical conditioning is a powerful learning device used to modify behavior. You can use it to help to crate train your dog by feeding your dog in their crate until the dog likes being in their crate. In a similar way you can use Classical Conditioning to teach settle on a mat.
Here, trainer Ilana Bram uses food and a toy to classically condition a puppy to walk in the heel position.